African Art embodies all that is mystical, spiritual, emotive and arresting about Africa. It can evoke joy or fear, emotionally exuberant or startled responses… it is fantastical, illuminating, complex… and in its purest form, beautiful beyond measure.
However, if we look at the Western definition of ‘art’, it pertains to ‘imitative or imaginative skill applied in design’ and alludes to ‘skillful execution as an object in itself.’ All of these descriptions can be applied to the beautifully crafted objects and fine forms of the art of Africa. It is the appearance that they cannot be separated from function that leads to the provocative current debate of whether art from Africa is indeed ‘art’ or ‘craft’. I, for one, cannot believe these pieces, created primarily for a functional reason, were not simultaneously being personally valued by the creator as a source of aesthetic pleasure and an expression of his/her imagination and inner creative being, so valued in Western art today. Either way, the aesthetic significance of African art to the world of art today is immense. In my mind, there is no other continent whose study of their arts can shed such an instructive spiritual and intellectual light upon the societal structure of its communities who have inhabited, and presently do inhabit, this amazingly creative, richly rewarding land mass.
The art of Africa is a cultural heritage that leads us on both an historical and geographical journey. The term usually refers to the work of ‘black’ or sub-Saharan Africa, the part of the continent that was originally occupied by Negro people who developed cultures quite separate from those of Mediterranean cultures, both Islamic and Caucasian. This area can itself be broken down again to West Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. Each specific area has its own art disciplines that are more prominently used than in other areas according to geographical environment, influences of climate, selection of and availability of raw materials and natural resources, cultural traditions and spiritual practices.
There are seven major types of art produced historically in Africa that are widely recognized…
- Figural sculptures
- Carving – Artifacts, Furniture
The following decorative art forms can also be added…
- Musical instruments
- Gold weights
- Bead work
Traditionally, the most important aspect of an African piece of art has been its function:
- connecting to a higher spiritual world
- commemorating a political or social event
- crafting, embellishing and enhancing a utilitarian object
On the other hand, painting in Africa has been a form of applied art executed on rock walls to assist in story telling and recording events. Pigment and dyes have also been applied to decorate surfaces on sculpture, pottery, drums or architectural buildings, even bodies and skin. However, collectors of art from Africa were very taken with form and until recent times, little was known of the community producing the art and the cultural significance and meaning behind the creation of such objects. Most recently, as more depth in study has occurred, all forms of the art from Africa have been observed in an effort not to impose Western confines and to try and understand the intention behind creating the piece, for surely a traditional African artist had as sure a concept about what he was producing as any modern day one.
The motive for creating any piece of art is invariably complex, perhaps even more so in an African artist’s mind for not only has he to satisfy the functional requirement of the piece, he also has to satisfy the aesthetic aspirations of his culture and his own motive for creating the piece… that may or may not, be in addition a personal form of expression, an emotional outpouring or simply an egotistical demonstration of his skill. By regarding African artists as only being concerned with function, one ceases to identify with them as people with personalities, ambition, pride or egos. Coupled with this is the fact that seldom do we know of an artist’s name. Only in recent years can we start to identify work from known sculptors such as the master wood carvers of Yoruba or the baboon master carver from Zululand in South Africa. It is vitally important that artists such as those who produce the beautiful and imaginative pieces for Ardmore Ceramics in South Africa are recognised individually. This I am glad to report is happening more and more on the contemporary scene.
Contemporary African art
Africa is home to a thriving and energetic contemporary art culture. Painting, sculpture, metal art, gun art, photography, installation art, contemporary textiles and thread art, recycled art, printmaking, mixed media, all these forms exist in Africa today.
Without a profound knowledge of the history and traditions of the art of Africa, its sociological makeup, its political and cultural contexts, its design principles and its common characteristics, we would fail to see where contemporary African art has arrived at, what it pays allegiance to and what it chooses to leave behind in its attempt to be part of a world universalization.